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Sources
Part of our Low Carbon Copenhagen project ... project index >
Source material for all
the Low Carbon Copenhagen articles
Climate change
Klima-OG Energiministeriet, Denmark's Fifth National Communication on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, December 2009
Renewable energy in Denmark
City of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Climate Plan, Technical & Environmental Administration, Copenhagen, July 2009
Danish Energy Authority, Renewable Energy, Danish Solutions Background, Technology, Projects, Copenhagen, September 2003
Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Policy - 1970-2010, Copenhagen, undated
www.cphx.dk
www.energymap.dk
www.ens.dk
Denmark, Cleantech (English), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-r800QeDlo
Renewable energy in Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mq5922b7T_E
Wind power
Danish Energy Authority, Renewable Energy, Danish Solutions Background, Technology, Projects, Copenhagen, September 2003
Larsen, J.H.M., Sørensen, H.C., Christiansen, E., Naef, S. and Vølund, P., Experiences from Middelgrunden 40 MW Offshore Wind Farm, N.p., October 2005
http://news.bbc.co.uk (accessed May 2010)
www.ceere.org (accessed October 2009)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.dongenergy.com (accessed October 2009)
www.ens.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.lynettenvind.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.middelgrund.com (accessed May 2010)
www.nce.co.uk (accessed October 2009)
www.windpower.org (accessed May 2010)
Danish Windmill Power, www.youtube.com/watch?v=I09HrJ9I9OA (accessed May 2010)
ENERCON E126 - The World's Largest Wind Turbine, www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQxp6QTjgJg (accessed October 2009)
Offshore Wind - Global Observatory, www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2auMzuPeFo (accessed May 2010)
wind turbine construction [time lapse], www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4W-XYxjmTw (accessed October 2009)
Windmills of the Copenhagen shore, www.youtube.com/watch?v=acw52-5NPTA (accessed October 2009)
Waste-to-energy
City of Copenhagen, Waste Management Plan 2012 the short version, Technical & Environmental Administration, Copenhagen, 2008
Copenhagen Together, Exploring zero waste a Copenhagen perspective, Technical & Environmental Administration, Copenhagen, undated
Kleis, H. and Dalager, S., 100 Years of Waste Incineration in Denmark, Babcock & Wilcox Vølund and Rambøll, Denmark, 2004
Rambøll, Waste-to-energy in Denmark, RenoSam, Copenhagen, undated
Wulff, P. and Dyrelund, A., Waste to Energy How local communities create value from their waste, DBDH Journal No. 3/2008, pp.14-17, N.p., undated
http://sustainablecities.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.adbiogas.co.uk (accessed May 2010)
www.amfor.dk/English (accessed May 2010)
www.c40cities.org (accessed May 2010)
www.dbdh.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.energymap.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.kk.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.ramboll.com (accessed May 2010)
www.vestfor.com (accessed May 2010)
www.waste-technology.co.uk (accessed May 2010)
Amager Incineration Plant Tour [1], www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bq8Q7XuS32g (accessed May 2010)
Amager Incineration Plant Tour - Garbage into energy in a high tech clean way! [2], www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqs6lKxRsIg (accessed May 2010)
Copenhagen-Waste, www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgar-oMj5dI (accessed May 2010)
Crane at Amagerforbrænding incinerator, www.youtube.com/watch?v=en-cWTnypzA (accessed May 2010)
Waste to Energy - An Overview, www.youtube.com/watch?v=iioOVevReOs (accessed May 2010)
Solar power
Danish Energy Authority, Renewable Energy, Danish Solutions Background, Technology, Projects, Copenhagen, September 2003
Information leaflet, Hans Knudsens Plads, Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, undated
Stenkjaer N., Solar Cells in Denmark, Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, N.p., November 2009
www.dansksolenergi.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.e-architect.co.uk/copenhagen (accessed June 2010)
www.energymap.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.ens.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.folkecenter.net (accessed June 2010)
www.nce.co.uk (accessed October 2009)
www.risoe.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.skyscrapercity.com (accessed June 2010)
www.solarcitycopenhagen.dk/english (accessed June 2010)
www.solarmarstal.dk (accessed June 2010)
Solar Thermal Energy: Harnessing the Power of the Sun, www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9Oy3VOPEgs (accessed June 2010)
Solar Power 101 - how does sunlight turn into electricity, www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFDn6eTV0jQ (accessed June 2010)
Introduction to Solar Photovoltaics, www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mCTSV2f36A (accessed June 2010)
Geothermal power
Blodgett, L. and Gawell, K., When in Copenhagen See the Wind Turbines but Feel the Geothermal Heat, Too!, Copenhagen, December 2009
Lund, J.W., Utilisation of geothermal resources, Proceedings of the ICE - Energy, Vol.162, Issue 1, pp.3-12, London, February 2009
Mahler, A., Geothermal Plant with Efficient Absorption Heat Pumps Driven by Incineration CHP Plant. Successful Injection in Sandstone Aquifer. Country Update Denmark, Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May-June 2000
Mahler, A. and Magtengaard, J., Geothermal Development in Denmark, Country Update, Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, April 2005
Mathiesen, A., Nielsen, L.H. and Bidstrup, T., Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Geothermal energy in Denmark - an environmentally compatible supplement to the total energy supply, Proceedings of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Issue 6, N.p., 2009
http://iopscience.iop.org (accessed May 2010)
http://science.au.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.dongenergy.com (accessed May 2010)
www.ens.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.geo-energy.org (accessed May 2010)
www.icevirtuallibrary.com (accessed May 2010)
www.renewableenergyworld.com (accessed May 2010)
Geothermal Energy Process, www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfUQy86ZMpQ (accessed May 2010)
Geothermal Heating, www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ajqiPe_9Ko (accessed May 2010)
How a Geothermal Plant Works, www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjpp2MQffnw (accessed May 2010)
Biomass technologies
Jørgensen, H., Current status on biorefineries in Denmark, Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape & Planning University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, undated
Pedersen, K., Welcome to Avedøre Multi Fuel Power Plant, DONG Energy, 22nd February 2010
Pedersen, N.R., Production and use of Bio Pellets, Energi E2, Copenhagen, undated
Renescience, More Energy, Less CO2 and More Raw Material, Research and Development leaflet sponsored by Energinet Denmark, N.p., undated
Schuck, S., Bioenergy from Forestry Status and Opportunities, Asia Pacific Forest Industries Climate Change Conference, Sydney, Australia, 19th August 2008
Schultz, G., Modern biomass utilization, Energi E2 Denmark, N.p., undated
Stichting RUW, All about our Bio Energy, Report on visit to Denmark, Netherlands, July 2007
Vattenfall, Amager Power Station, Vattenfall A/S, Copenhagen, undated
http://news.bbc.co.uk (accessed May 2010)
www.adbiogas.co.uk (accessed May 2010)
www.bioenergy.novozymes.com (accessed May 2010)
www.biogasol.com (accessed May 2010)
www.biorefinery.nl (accessed May 2010)
www.denmark.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.dongenergy.com (accessed May 2010)
www.energinet.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.energymap.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.forestworks.com.au (accessed May 2010)
www.genencor.com (accessed May 2010)
www.greentechmedia.com (accessed May 2010)
www.inbicon.com (accessed May 2010)
www.investindk.com (accessed May 2010)
www.northernwoodheat.net (accessed May 2010)
www.power-technology.com (accessed May 2010)
www.prnewswire.com (accessed May 2010)
www.stichtingruw.nl (accessed May 2010)
www.vatenfall.dk (accessed May 2010)
Biofuels: The Next Generation, www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYAtSU2Xs-A (accessed May 2010)
Biofuels: Beyond the Headlines, www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJgBQbLI5YQ (accessed May 2010)
About Biomass Fuels, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Asnqy6kC0a (accessed May 2010)
Modular Biomass Combined Heat & Power System (CHP),
www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQAiH-FG9gE (accessed May 2010)
Other technologies
City of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Climate Plan, Technical & Environmental Administration, Copenhagen, July 2009
Farias, T.L., Fuel cell bus Berlin, Copenhagen and Lisbon: A sustainable and environmental technology for the urban passenger transportation sector, Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Urban Transport & the Environment in the 21st Century, Seville, March 2002
Wave Star A/S, information leaflet, Hellerup, undated
http://auto.howstuffworks.com (accessed October 2009)
http://blog.cleanenergy.org (accessed June 2010)
http://fuelcellsworks.com (accessed June 2010)
www.copcap.com (accessed June 2010)
www.cphx.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009 and May 2010)
www.eaue.de (accessed October 2009)
www.energymap.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.ens.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.fcbt.gatech.edu (accessed October 2009)
www.h2euro.org (accessed June 2010)
www.h2logic.com (accessed June 2010)
www.hydrogenlink.net (accessed June 2010)
www.renewableenergyfocus.com (accessed June 2010)
www.risoe.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.wavestarenergy.com (accessed June 2010)
Copenhagen opens its first Hydrogen Station, www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCfMFSl90lA
Denmark, Cleantech (English), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-r800QeDlo
Electricity from all kinds of renewable sources, www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaLBvHYYyUA (accessed October 2009)
Global Warming, Fuel for Future - Copenhagen, Part 1, www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuqzPOcC2Dk (accessed October 2009)
Global Warming, Eco Cities - Copenhagen, Part 2, www.youtube.com/watch?v=uqCAR8BWT0Y (accessed October 2009)
Green Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_GIxjLTmnI (accessed October 2009)
Renewable energy in Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mq5922b7T_E
District heating and cooling : Denmark
Danish Energy Authority, Heat Supply in Denmark - Who What Where and Why, Copenhagen, January 2005
Rambøll, Using Waste as a Resource, Rambøll, Copenhagen, undated
http://postcarboncities.net (accessed June 2010)
www.dbdh.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.energymap.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.ens.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.ramboll.com (accessed June 2010)
District heating & cooling from Denmark Part 1 of 3 "Just imagine", www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3vNOIwCbHs
District heating & cooling from Denmark Part 2 of 3 "Just imagine", www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqal_3DsHi8
District heating & cooling from Denmark Part 3 of 3 "Just imagine", www.youtube.com/watch?v=9UFAXWwIaxc
district heating explained, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mXAxH5mom5w
Combined Heat & Power: how it works, www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXLUoqzlT2k
District heating and cooling : Copenhagen
City of Copenhagen, Application for the Global District Energy Climate Award Copenhagen District Heating System, Copenhagen, September 2009
Foged, M.I. and Skov, M., District Cooling in Copenhagen, Copenhagen Energy, DBDH Journal No. 3/1999, N.p., 1999
Københavns Energi, Discrict [sic] Heating in Copenhagen: an Energy Efficient, Low Carbon, and Cost Effective Energy System, Copenhagen, 2009
Lindboe, H.H., District Heating in Greater Copenhagen Energy efficiency & CO2 reduction, Ea Energy Analyses, Varmeplan Hovedstaden, PSI Workshop Presentation at COP 15, Copenhagen, 14th December 2009
Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission Company, The Main District Heating Network in Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, undated
Mortensen, H.C., Combined Heat and Power Projects in Greater Copenhagen (CTR/VEKS), Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission Company, Copenhagen, undated
Thornton, R., Copenhagens District Heating System Recycling Waste Heat Reduces Carbon Emissions and Delivers Energy Security, International District Energy Association, Westborough, Massachusetts, 2009
http://ec.europa.eu (accessed June 2010)
http://ecoheat4.eu (accessed June 2010)
www.amfor.dk (accessed May 2010)
www.c40cities.org (accessed June 2010)
www.cowi.com (accessed June 2010)
www.ctr.dk/en/home.aspx (accessed June 2010)
www.dongenergy.com (accessed June 2010)
www.energy.rochester.edu (accessed June 2010)
www.karanoveren.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.ke.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.kobenhavn.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.lyn-is.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.metrovancouver.org (accessed June 2010)
www.nordicenergysolutions.org (accessed June 2010)
www.ramboll.com (accessed June 2010)
www.veks.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.vestfor.com (accessed June 2010)
Future City - Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1kJNr7BBY4
Low carbon initiatives : Denmark
Abboud, L., How Denmark Paved Way To Energy Independence, http://postcarboncities.net/node/155, April 2007
Beatley, T., Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities, Island Press, Washington DC, 2000
Danish Government, Danish strategy for adaptation to a changing climate, Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen, March 2008, available at http://www.kemin.dk
Dodd, N., TCPA and CHPA, Community Energy: Urban Planning for a Low Carbon Future, Oldham, 2008, available at http://www.tcpa.org.uk
Energi Styrelsen, The Danish example the way to an energy efficient and energy friendly economy, N.p., February 2009, available at http://www.kemin.dk
International Energy Authority, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, 2008 Edition, IEA, N.p., 2008
Lerch, D., Post Carbon Cities: Planning for Energy and Climate Uncertainty, Post Carbon Press, N.p., 2004
http://geography.howstuffworks.com (accessed October 2009)
http://online.wsj.com (accessed June 2010)
http://postcarboncities.net (accessed October 2009)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.ens.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.iea.org (accessed October 2009) www.kemin.dk (accessed June 2010) www.skm.dk (accessed June 2010) www.unep.org (accessed October 2009 and July 2010)
Carbon Footprint, www.youtube.com/watch?v=aE_4VLWUBu8 (accessed June 2010)
Time-lapse history of human global CO2 emissions, www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEMse22h8c8 (accessed June 2010)
Low carbon initiatives : Copenhagen
City of Copenhagen, Eco-Metropole, our Vision for Copenhagen 2015, Trykbureauet, Copenhagen, November 2007, available at http://www.kk.dk
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Case, Eco-Metropolis of the World, N.p., undated
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Denmark Asks, Will Copenhagen Still be Wonderful in 2015?, N.p., undated, available at http://www.denmark.dk
http://unfccc.int (accessed July 2010)
www.c40cities.org (accessed June 2010)
www.cphx.dk (accessed June 2010)
www.co2penhagen.com (accessed June 2010)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.energymap.dk (accessed October 2009)
www.inhabitat.com (accessed October 2009)
www.kk.dk/english.aspx (accessed June 2010)
www.stenurten-kk.dk (accessed July 2010)
www.unep.org (accessed October 2009 and July 2010)
www.visitcopenhagen.com (accessed June 2010)
Green Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_GIxjLTmnI (accessed October 2009)
Cycling in Copenhagen
City of Copenhagen, City of Cyclists Copenhagen bicycle life, City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration, May 2009
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Public Spaces - Public Life, Copenhagen 1996, Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, 1996 (reprinted March 2004)
Traffic Department, Copenhagen City of Cyclists Bicycle Account 2006, City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration, Traffic Department, June 2007
Traffic Department, Copenhagen City of Cyclists Bicycle Account 2008, City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration, Traffic Department, August 2009
http://postcarboncities.net (accessed October 2009)
http://velo-city2010.com (accessed April 2010)
www.bikecopenhagenwithmike.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.bycyklen.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.citysafari.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.copenhagenize.com (accessed April 2010)
www.cphpost.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.cycling-embassy.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009 and April 2010)
www.flyingtigers-cykeltaxa.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.fyidenmark.com (accessed April 2010)
www.kk.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.oybike.com (accessed April 2010)
www.pedalinghistory.com (accessed April 2010)
www.roadcyclinguk.com (accessed April 2010)
Cycling in the snow Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q5jdZjmoR0 (accessed April 2010)
Copenhagen bike city, www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXznapqmulE (accessed October 2009)
Copenhagen Cycling Infrastructure & Culture, www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5Y2YD3ow0o (accessed October 2009)
Congestion in Copenhagen (YIKES: BIKES), www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYajXN4pPHI (accessed October 2009)
Pedestrianisation in Copenhagen
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Public Spaces - Public Life, Copenhagen 1996, Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, 1996 (reprinted March 2004)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., New City Spaces, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, 2001 (reprinted March 2006)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Kirknaes, S., Sternhagen Sondergaard, B., New City Life, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, October 2006
Pugalis, L., Wonderful, Wonderful Copenhagen, R.H. Williams Travel Award 2006 Final Paper, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, October 2006
Tan, E., Delft University of Technology, What the Pedestrian Wants, in NovaTerra, pp.31-35, April 2006
www.independent.co.uk (accessed October 2009)
www.metropolismag.com (accessed October 2009)
Copenhagen People in HD, www.youtube.com/watch?v=CnCP_RDSdQY (accessed October 2009)
Pedestrianisation timeline
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Public Spaces - Public Life, Copenhagen 1996, Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, 1996 (reprinted March 2004)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., New City Spaces, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, 2001 (reprinted March 2006)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Kirknaes, S., Sternhagen Sondergaard, B., New City Life, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, October 2006
Pugalis, L., Wonderful, Wonderful Copenhagen, R.H. Williams Travel Award 2006 Final Paper, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, October 2006
Tan, E., Delft University of Technology, What the Pedestrian Wants, in NovaTerra, pp.31-35, April 2006
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009 and May 2010)
www.independent.co.uk (accessed October 2009)
Urban planning timeline
Bosselmann, P., Transformations and City Extensions: Some Observations of Copenhagen's City Form at a Time of Global Change, IURD Working Paper Series Paper, Institute of Urban & Regional Development, N.p., 2001
Christiansen, H.C., Copenhagen: Comprehensive urban waste regulatory system, Copenhagen Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen, 2000
Gehl, J., Close Encounters with Buildings, Centre for Public Space Publication, Copenhagen, 2005 (translated from 'Naerkontakt med huse, in Arkitekten 9/2004)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Public Spaces - Public Life, Copenhagen 1996, Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, 1996 (reprinted March 2004)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., New City Spaces, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, 2001 (reprinted March 2006)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Kirknaes, S., Sternhagen Sondergaard, B., New City Life, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, October 2006
Naess, P., Residential location affects travel behavior - but how and why? The case of Copenhagen metropolitan area, Progress in Planning, Vol. 63(2), pp.167-257, N.p., 2005
Nielsen, A., The AKTA road pricing experiment in Copenhagen, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, undated
Nilas, C., The challenge posed to Copenhagen Metropolitan Area by urban growth, Byplan, Vol. 1/03, pp.22-27, N.p., 2003
Transport & Travel Research Ltd, Urban Transport Benchmarking Initiative Year Two, N.p., July 2005
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009 and May 2010)
www.eaue.de (accessed October 2009)
www.kk.dk (accessed April 2010)
www.sustainability.murdoch.edu.au (accessed October 2009)
Copenhagen key facts
Brochman, O., Copenhagen a History of the City Told Through its Buildings, Arkitektens Forlag, N.p., 1970
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., Public Spaces - Public Life, Copenhagen 1996, Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, 1996 (reprinted March 2004)
Gehl, J. and Gemze, L., New City Spaces, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen, 2001 (reprinted March 2006)
Levy, P., City Spots Copenhagen, Thomas Cook Publishing, Peterborough, 2006
http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-copenhagen.htm (accessed October 2009)
www.copenhagen.com (accessed October 2009)
www.visitcopenhagen.com (accessed October 2009)
Guide to Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WX2jTAC8uSE (accessed October 2009)
Green Copenhagen, www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZY3zEERfRs (accessed October 2009)
Denmark timeline
Energi Styrelsen, "The Danish example" the way to an energy efficient and energy friendly economy, Energi Styrelsen, N.p., February 2009
Jespersen, K.J.V., A History of Denmark (Palgrave Essential Histories), Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2004
Witkowska, M. and Hald, J., Eyewitness Travel Denmark, Dorling Kindersley, London, 2008
http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-copenhagen.htm (accessed October 2009)
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook (accessed October 2009)
www.denmark.dk (accessed October 2009)