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Hillcarr Sough
west of River Derwent, Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK
Hillcarr Sough
associated engineer
date  1766 - 1787 and later
era  Georgian  |  category  Drainage System  |  reference  SK257637
ICE reference number  HEW 66
photo  PHEW
Hillcarr is the longest of the more than 200 soughs (pronounced "suff"), or horizontal adits, that were driven through Derbyshire's limestone hills to drain water from mine shafts in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The outlet of Hillcarr Sough is in Darley Dale, marked by a gritstone arch 8ft high and 6ft wide. Its final length was 6,100 yards plus the lengths of its many branches, and it drained mines as far away as the Mosstone Mine south of Youlgreave. The water drains into the Derwent.
It was lead the miners were after and thousands of shafts were dug, from as far back as Roman times, though all are closed now. Many methods were tried for removing water, including steam powered pumps. The creation of a sough could greatly reduce the need for pumping or lifting.
Most soughs had a gradient of 10-20 ft per mile. Their tunnels were usually self-supporting or used stone slabs for floors and ceilings and stone walling for the sides if necessary.
reference sources   CEH E&C

Hillcarr Sough